I call these the 90/10 manuals because once you’ve taught one math year, 90% of the teacher’s manual is unnecessary. However, there’s a 10% that is VITAL to your sanity.

The *missing* piece in Abeka, for most parents without the manual, is the **MEMORY WORK. **There is SO MUCH DRILL that you don’t know about. In my opinion, it’s massive overkill, but I was under the impression that there was no memory work in math in the early years. Those worksheets get hard FAST under those conditions.

## First, you need to know what is assumed.

I call the first month of Abeka, “You-already-know-this.” They blow through the review so fast! If you don’t already have these skills drilled in, you start out behind and the worksheets take a LOT longer.

- Fact Families 1-5 addition and subtraction
- Counting to 100
- Forwards and backwards counting by 1’s and 10’s.
- Calling out before and after numbers by 1’s
- Writing numbers 1-70
- Recognizing/ordering cardinal and ordinal number words 1-20
- Name or draw squares and circles
- Recognize pennies/dimes and say amount
- Recite days of the week and put word cards in order
- Process words like “sum” and “difference”

## Fact Family Pacing Guide

The speed drills are just for speed. Anything on a speed drill should be already reasonably fast on flashcards. Abeka recommends that child to have the previous family of facts mastered by the time a new family is introduced (read: first appears in the box at the top of the worksheet). By “family” they mean the set of facts that all add up to that number (0+4, 1+3, 2+2, 3+1, 4+0) or the set of subtraction facts that are all taken away from that number (3-0, 3-1, 3-2).

More families are introduced, but the mastery expectations end with Family 13.

## Other Drill

The actual manual drills way beyond this, but this is the section that Abeka thinks that you have down COLD by day 1 of 2nd grade. It starts in the second “theme” section of the workbook.

- Counting, reading 100 to 200
- Forwards and backwards counting and writing by 2’s and 5’s, evens, odds
- Forwards by 25’s
- Putting consecutive and non-consecutive numbers in order
- Writing the numbers 71-200
- Name or draw rectangle, triangles
- Amount and count of quarters, dimes, nickels, and pennies
- Name days of the week, put cards in order too
- Name months of the year, put cards in order too
- Setting a clock to the hour and half hour
- Measures (mo/yr, days/wk, min/hr, hrs/day, c/pt/qt/gal, in/ft/yard, dozen, 1/2 dozen)